FDA update 30th August 2011,
Guidance for Institutional Review Boards and Clinical Investigators: emergency use of test articles:
The emergency use of test articles frequently prompts questions from Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and investigators. This guidance addresses three areas of concern: emergency Investigational New Drug (IND) requirements; IRB procedures; and informed consent requirements.
Obtaining an Emergency IND
The emergency use of an unapproved investigational drug or biologic requires an IND. If the intended subject does not meet the criteria of an existing study protocol, or if an approved study protocol does not exist, the usual procedure is to contact the manufacturer and determine if the drug or biologic can be made available for the emergency use under the company's IND. The need for an investigational drug or biologic may arise in an emergency situation that does not allow time for submission of an IND.
In such a case, FDA may authorize shipment of the test article in advance of the IND submission. Requests for such authorization may be made by telephone or other rapid communication means [21 CFR 312.310(d)].
Emergency Exemption from Prospective IRB Approval
Emergency use is defined as the use of an investigational drug or biological product with a human subject in a life-threatening situation in which no standard acceptable treatment is available and in which there is not sufficient time to obtain IRB approval [21 CFR 56.102(d)]. The emergency use provision in the FDA regulations [21 CFR 56.104(c)] is an exemption from prior review and approval by the IRB. The exemption, which may not be used unless all of the conditions described in 21 CFR 56.102(d) exist, allows for one emergency use of a test article without prospective IRB review. FDA regulations require that any subsequent use of the investigational product at the institution have prospective IRB review and approval. FDA acknowledges, however, that it would be inappropriate to deny emergency treatment to a second individual if the only obstacle is that the IRB has not had sufficient time to convene a meeting to review the issue.
Life-threatening, for the purposes of section 56.102(d), includes the scope of both life-threatening and severely debilitating, as defined below.
Institutional procedures may require that the IRB be notified prior to such use; however, this notification should not be construed as an IRB approval. Notification should be used by the IRB to initiate tracking to ensure that the investigator files a report within the five day time-frame required by 21 CFR 56.104(c). The FDA regulations do not provide for expedited IRB approval in emergency situations. Therefore, "interim," "compassionate," "temporary" or other terms for an expedited approval process are not authorized. An IRB must either convene or give "full board" approval of the emergency use or, if the conditions of 21 CFR 56.102(d) are met and it is not possible to convene a quorum within the time available, the use may proceed without any IRB approval.
Some manufacturers will agree to allow the use of the test article, but their policy requires "an IRB approval letter" before the test article will be shipped. If it is not possible to convene a quorum of the IRB within the time available, some IRBs have sent to the sponsor a written statement that the IRB is aware of the proposed use and considers the use to meet the requirements of 21 CFR 56.104(c). Although, this is not an "IRB approval," the acknowledgment letter has been acceptable to manufacturers and has allowed the shipment to proceed.
This policy is undergoing review and is subject to change.
Exception from Informed Consent Requirement
Even for an emergency use, the investigator is required to obtain informed consent of the subject or the subject's legally authorized representative unless both the investigator and a physician who is not otherwise participating in the clinical investigation certify in writing all of the following [21 CFR 50.23(a)]:
the investigator's opinion, immediate use of the test article is required to
preserve the subject's life, and if time is not sufficient to obtain an
independent physician's determination that the four conditions above apply,
the clinical investigator should make the determination and, within 5
working days after the use of the article, have the determination reviewed
and evaluated in writing by a physician who is not participating in the
clinical investigation. The investigator must notify the IRB within 5
working days after the use of the test article
Exception from Informed Consent for Planned Emergency Research
The conduct of planned research in life-threatening emergent situations where obtaining prospective informed consent has been waived is provided by 21 CFR 50.24. The research plan must be approved in advance by FDA and the IRB, and publicly disclosed to the community in which the research will be conducted. Such studies are usually not eligible for the emergency approvals described above.
For more information on this guidance you can go to the following link: http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm126491.htm or contact mdi at email@example.com REF: Emergency use IND.
Copyright © 1997 - 2010 by: mdi Consultants, Inc
Internet Presence, Creation, Design & Maintenance by: Windco.com, Inc